YOUhydration (part 1)


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YOU hydration [euhydration] | project by Simone van den Broek

Final Master Project project of Simone van den Broek for the Constructive Design Research track at the Department of Industrial Design, Eindhoven University of Technology.
The purpose of the research study YOU hydrated is to research how young adults who do not live with their parents can be activated to adopt an euhydrated lifestyle trough a design solution.
The objective of the study is to find out what keeps young adults from adopting an euhydrated lifestyle and what is needed for them to adopt an euhydrated lifestyle.

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Full Research description

Vitality is the combination of factual and perceived [18] mental and physical well-being. Having a healthy lifestyle contributes to one’s vitality [7]. Maintaining a balanced diet [8], executing sufficient exercise [10][11], taking enough rest [12] are part of following a healthy lifestyle.

When it comes to maintaining a balanced diet there is a lot of information and emphasise on food [8][4]. One can calculate what calories and macros need to be eaten according to their lifestyle, goals and preferences [9].

An aspect of maintaining a balanced diet that often does not get a lot of attention is beverage consumption. This is one of the reasons there is not a lot of data available about beverage consumption [16][15][14]. Another reason for lack of conclusive data is that studies use different methods [5]. For clear insight more and structured research to beverage consumption and its effect on health and preventing disease is needed [3].

It is known that being hydrated is important for one’s health [17]. But how much one should drink is not very clear. There are some set rules that people tend to follow that consist of drinking a set amount of water a day [20]. These set rules do not take into account one’s surroundings, lifestyle, goals, experiences or preferences [15].

To be sufficiently hydrated one should be euhydrated [21]. One is euhydrated when the volume of water in the body is that which supports good health and function. This is different for every individual. When the euhydration level decreases with 2% or more, the body will be dehydrated and start showing performance inefficiencies. These inefficiencies are both physical and mental.

One way to know a person is dehydrated is that they have the sensation of thirst. Papers seem to not be conclusive on whether drinking according to thirst will keep an individual sufficiently hydrated [14][20]. Both sides do admit that the sensation of thirst gets influenced by environmental factors. They also admit that drinking according to thirst is not sufficient for athletes, military, hot environments, people who are ill, the elderly or infants [3].

But even for healthy individuals, it is reported that they are not sufficiently hydrated[13]. Because of the different research methods, the reported percentage of euhydrated individuals differs. One study found mild and overt hypertonicity was observed in 40%  and 20% in community-dwelling adults aged 20 to 90 years [19]. A cause of hypertonicity is dehydration. Another paper reported that roughly 60% of the population is euhydrated in daily life. The other 40% is either dehydrated or hyper hydrated[13]. Another paper states that the prevalence of dehydration in adults has been estimated to be 16–28 % depending on age [5].

Not being euhydrated can result in multiple unwanted consequences. These consequences show them self as inefficiencies in both the mental [1] and physical capability. It leads to decrements in physical performance, reduced endurance, increased fatigue, altered thermoregulatory capability, reduced motivation, and increased perceived effort. Dehydration has a negative influence on cognitive function such as concentration, alertness and short-term memory [15]. It also has a negative influence on one’s mood [6]. These inefficiencies can have a great impact on the daily lives of individuals.

For my Final Master Project in the Constructive Design Research track, I will do research to how young adults can be motivated and activated to follow an euhydrated lifestyle.

I will specifically focus on young adults who do not live with their parents. During the transition from living at their parents home and going to live on their own, young adults make a lot of choices about their lifestyle that have a lasting impact on their future lifestyle and health [2]. I will focus on young adults who are in the contemplation or determination phase of The Transtheoretical model [16] when it comes to adopting an euhydrated lifestyle.

Though I want to put emphasis on euhydration I also will take the kind of beverages they drink into account during my research. Since it is important to drink enough but one should also be conscious of what it is they drink.

References

  1. Ana Adan. 2012. Cognitive performance and dehydration. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 31, 2: 71–78. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2012.10720011
  2. Richard J Bonnie, Clare Stroud, and Heather Breiner. 2014. Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. https://doi.org/10.17226/18869
  3. Sheila M. Campbell. 2007. Hydration needs throughout the lifespan. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 26, November 2007: 585S–587S. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2007.10719662
  4. Katharina Diethelm, Nicole Jankovic, Luis A Moreno, Inge Huybrechts, Stefaan De Henauw, Tineke De Vriendt, Marcela González-Gross, Catherine Leclercq, Frédéric Gottrand, Chantal C Gilbert, Jean Dallongeville, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Yannis Manios, Anthony Kafatos, María Plada, and Mathilde Kersting. 2012. Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study. Public Health Nutrition 15, 3: 386–398. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001935
  5. Joan Gandy. 2015. Water intake: validity of population assessment and recommendations. European Journal of Nutrition 54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-015-0944-8
  6. Matthew S. Ganio, Lawrence E. Armstrong, Douglas J. Casa, Brendon P. McDermott, Elaine C. Lee, Linda M. Yamamoto, Stefania Marzano, Rebecca M. Lopez, Liliana Jimenez, Laurent Le Bellego, Emmanuel Chevillotte, and Harris R. Lieberman. 2011. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men. British Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511002005
  7. L. Hartman, J. M. Van Dongen, V. H. Hildebrandt, and J. E. Strijk. 2016. The Role of Vitality in the Relationship between a Healthy Lifestyle and Societal Costs of Health Care and Lost Productivity. American Journal of Health Promotion 30, 6: 465–474. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117116658182
  8. Annemien Haveman-Nies, Lisette C.P.G.M. de Groot, and Wija A. van Staveren. 2003. Dietary quality, lifestyle factors and healthy ageing in Europe. Age and Ageing 32, 4: 427–434. Retrieved from http://cataleg.ub.edu/record=b2014504~S1%2Acat
  9. IOM. 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10490
  10. Y. Iwasaki, J. Zuzanek, and R. C. Mannell. 2001. The effects of physically active leisure on stress-health relationships. Canadian Journal of Public Health 92, 3: 214–218.
  11. R G Laforge, J S Rossi, J O Prochaska, W F Velicer, D a Levesque, and C a McHorney. 1999. Stage of regular exercise and health-related quality of life. Preventive medicine 28, 4: 349–360. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1998.0429
  12. Sakari Lemola, Nadine Perkinson-Gloor, Serge Brand, Julia F. Dewald-Kaufmann, and Alexander Grob. 2014. Adolescents’ Electronic Media Use at Night, Sleep Disturbance, and Depressive Symptoms in the Smartphone Age. Journal of Youth and Adolescence 44, 2: 405–418. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-014-0176-x
  13. Olga Malisova, Adelais Athanasatou, Alex Pepa, Marlien Husemann, Kirsten Domnik, Hans Braun, Ricardo Mora-Rodriguez, Juan F. Ortega, Valentin E. Fernandez-Elias, and Maria Kapsokefalou. 2016. Water intake and hydration indices in healthy European adults: The European Hydration Research Study (EHRS). Nutrients 8, 4: 204. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8040204
  14. Mindy Millard-Stafford, Deborah Michael Wendland, Namrita K. O’Dea, and Tracy L. Norman. 2012. Thirst and hydration status in everyday life. Nutrition Reviews 70, SUPPL/2: 147–151. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00527.x
  15. Barry M Popkin, Kristen E D’Anci, and Irwin H Rosenberg. 2010. Water, hydration, and health. Nutrition reviews 68, 8: 439–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00304.x
  16. J O Prochaska, C A Redding, and K E Evers. 2008. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. 97. Retrieved from http://www.josseybass.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470432489.html
  17. Patrick Ritz and Gilles Berrut. 2005. The Importance of Good Hydration for Day-to-Day Health. Nutrition Reviews 63, July 2005: S6–S13. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2005.tb00155.x
  18. Richard M. Ryan and Christina Frederick. 1997. On Energy, Personality, and Health: Subjective Vitality as a Dynamic Reflection of Well-Being. Journal of Personality 65, 3: 529–565. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1997.tb00326.x
  19. Jodi Dunmeyer Stookey. 2005. High Prevalence of Plasma Hypertonicity among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results from NHANES III. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105, 8: 1231–1239. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2005.05.003
  20. Heinz Valtin and A Gorman. 2002. “Drink at least eight glasses of water a day.” Really? Is there scientific evidence for “8 ? 8”? Journal of Applied Physiology 238, 38: 446–454.
  21. 2008. euhydration. Dictionary of Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine by Churchill Livingstone. Retrieved November 17, 2017 from https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/euhydration